The Raspberry Pi is a credit-card-sized computer that plugs into your TV and a keyboard. It is a capable little computer which can be used in electronics projects, and for many of the things that your desktop PC does.
Raspberry Pi is very popular in IoT projects and applications.
Raspbian is the official operating system for all models of the Raspberry Pi.
Download Raspberry Pi Operating System - You can choose between different Linux systems (Raspbian is recommended) and a special edition of Windows 10, called "Windows 10 IoT Core".
Raspberry 3 Model B is the newest version of Raspberry Pi. In addition to the board you typically need a network cable, HDMI cable, a 5V micro USB Power-supply, SD memory card, a USB keyboard and mouse, a monitor/TV, some sensors, etc. If your computer dont have a SD card slot, you also need a SD card USB adapter.
Windows 10 IoT Core is a special edition of Windows 10 that is meant for building Internet of Things (IoT) applications.
You can also use MATLAB when working with Internet of Things (IoT), Arduino and Rapberry Pi.
Here you find more information about Arduino.